[121][122], The plan changed; the destination became the Antarctic, and the project was defined by Shackleton as an "oceanographic and sub-antarctic expedition". It was led by Robert Falcon Scott, a Royal Navy torpedo lieutenant lately promoted commander,[16] and had objectives that included scientific and geographical discovery. [121] With funds supplied by former schoolfriend John Quiller Rowett, he acquired a 125-ton Norwegian sealer, named Foca I, which he renamed Quest. It is clear to me where our first duty lies, and this morning I telegraphed the First Lord of the Admiralty and put our ship, and every one of us, at his disposal. Repeatedly requesting posting to the front in France,[109] he was by now drinking heavily. [140] This negative picture of Scott became accepted as the popular truth[141] as the kind of heroism that Scott represented fell victim to the cultural shifts of the late twentieth century. A few moments later, at 2:50 a.m. on 5 January 1922, Shackleton suffered a fatal heart attack. Ernest Shackleton’s Endurance expedition was the remarkable final chapter in the Heroic Age of Exploration. A look at the packing list for Ernest Shackleton’s 1907-1909 Nimrod Expedition offers a fascinating insight into on-ice dining during the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration. Ernest Shackleton was born on 15 February 1874 in Kilkea, County Kildare, Ireland, to Henry Shackleton, and Henrietta Letitia Sophia Gavan and was the second of ten children. [123] When the party arrived in Rio de Janeiro, Shackleton suffered a suspected heart attack. The goal was ambitious - audacious even, considering that only 10 men had ever stood at the South Pole and 5 of those had died on the way back. Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton CVO OBE FRGS FRSGS (/ˈʃækəltən/; 15 February 1874 – 5 January 1922) was an Anglo-Irish Antarctic explorer who led three British expeditions to the Antarctic. [50] After considerable weather delays, Shackleton's base was eventually established at Cape Royds, about 24 miles (39 km) north of Hut Point. Led by explorer and environmental scientist Tim Jarvis, the team was assembled at the request of Alexandra Shackleton, Sir Ernest's granddaughter, who felt the trip would honour her grandfather's legacy. If anyone knew how to handle adversity, it was Shackleton. [113] On the way he was taken ill in Tromsø, possibly with a heart attack. [35] Instead, he became a journalist, working for the Royal Magazine, but he found this unsatisfactory. This is another fantastic addition to Vegara's Little People, Big Dreams series. [5], In 1880, when Ernest was six, Henry Shackleton gave up his life as a landowner to study medicine at Trinity College, Dublin, moving his family to the city. His story though is more familiar. Ireland has always been known for having large families, and even today, they are the country with the third highest fertility rate in Europe. He decided to leave most of the party behind, while he and five others set out on the James Caird to reach South Georgia, the nearest inhabited island, 800 miles away. His father, Henry Shackleton, tried to enter the army, but his poor health prevented him from doing so. In tribute to their achievement, he wrote: "I do not know how they did it, except that they had to—three men of the heroic age of Antarctic exploration with 50 feet of rope between them—and a carpenter's adze".[105]. [7], From early childhood, Shackleton was a voracious reader, a pursuit which sparked a passion for adventure. As you can see, he did not beat around the bush when describing the risk laden conditions these men would live in. expedition where, having lost the expedition ship, he led his crew through one of the greatest ever survival epics. On 9 April, their ice floe broke into two, and Shackleton ordered the crew into the lifeboats and to head for the nearest land. "[134], Before the return of Shackleton's body to South Georgia, there was a memorial service held for him with full military honours at Holy Trinity Church, Montevideo, and on 2 March a service was held at St Paul's Cathedral, London, at which the King and other members of the royal family were represented. For other uses, see, Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition, 1914–1917, Modern calculations, based on Shackleton's photograph and Wilson's drawing, place the furthest point reached at 82° 11'. He was one of the principal figures of the period known as the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration. So much to learn from his leadsership and vision which he demonstrated on many occasions. This march was not a serious attempt on the Pole, although the attainment of a high latitude was of great importance to Scott, and the inclusion of Shackleton indicated a high degree of personal trust. On 24 October, water began pouring in. [57], In 1910, Shackleton made a series of three recordings describing the expedition using an Edison phonograph. (, This expedition took place under Mawson, without Shackleton's participation, as the, Filchner was able to bring back geographical information that would be of much use to Shackleton, including the discovery of a possible landing site at, Churchill sent Shackleton a one-word telegram on 3 August –, Officer of the Order of the British Empire, List of personnel of the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition, Sir Ernest Shackleton: Funeral Ceremony In South Georgia: Many Wreaths On Coffin, Shackleton's Last Voyage: the Story of the Quest, "Polar explorer Ernest Shackleton may have had hole in his heart, doctors say", "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)", "Shackleton, Sir Ernest Henry of 14 Milnethorpe-road, Eastbourne, knight", "Reliving Shackleton's Epic Endurance Expedition", "Ernest Shackleton Honoured with Birthday Google Doodle", "Team sets out to recreate Shackleton's epic journey", "Sir Ernest Shackleton medals raise £585,000 at auction", "Elation for Adelaide adventurer Tim Jarvis as epic Antarctic trek ends", "Polar Explorer vs. Like many great tales, Shackleton’s story is one of failure. Our podcast series is themed on Shackleton’s four key principles and we look at his expertise and methods and at how these relate to the issues we are facing as we navigate the current situation. This was the first of a number of books about Shackleton that began to appear, showing him in a highly positive light. 77510). [23], According to steward Clarence Hare, he was "the most popular of the officers among the crew, being a good mixer",[24] though claims that this represented an unofficial rival leadership to Scott's are unsupported. [75] Two ships would be employed; Endurance would carry the main party into the Weddell Sea, aiming for Vahsel Bay from where a team of six, led by Shackleton, would begin the crossing of the continent. What Did Shackleton Do? Despite his assurances to Emily that "we are practically sure of the contract", nothing came of this scheme. [66] The heroism was also claimed by Ireland: the Dublin Evening Telegraph's headline read "South Pole Almost Reached By An Irishman",[66] while the Dublin Express spoke of the "qualities that were his heritage as an Irishman".[66]. [49], It was noted that ice conditions were unstable, precluding the establishment of a safe base there. Shackleton reluctantly agreed to look for winter quarters at either the Barrier Inlet—which Discovery had briefly visited in 1902—or King Edward VII Land. By early 1912, the world was aware that the pole had been conquered, by the Norwegian Roald Amundsen. There was this guy called Ernest Shackleton and he was an absolute fucking lad of a man. At the same time, attitudes towards Scott were gradually changing as a more critical note was sounded in the literature, culminating in Roland Huntford's 1979 treatment of him in his dual biography Scott and Amundsen, described by Barczewski as a "devastating attack". His first three attempts were foiled by sea ice, which blocked the approaches to the island. 1. [h][99][100] Not only did Shackleton recognize their value for the job but also because he knew the potential risk they were to morale. [b][41] In the meantime he had taken a job with wealthy Clydeside industrialist William Beardmore (later Lord Invernairn), with a roving commission which involved interviewing prospective clients and entertaining Beardmore's business friends. [145] Shackleton has also been cited as a model leader by the US Navy, and in a textbook on Congressional leadership, Peter L Steinke calls Shackleton the archetype of the "nonanxious leader" whose "calm, reflective demeanor becomes the antibiotic warning of the toxicity of reactive behaviour". She writes a monthly history of science column for The Irish Times. He was, as a shipmate recorded, "a departure from our usual type of young officer", content with his own company though not aloof, "spouting lines from Keats [and] Browning", a mixture of sensitivity and aggression but, withal, sympathetic. [22] During the Antarctic winter of 1902, in the confines of the iced-in Discovery, Shackleton edited the expedition's magazine The South Polar Times. [127] Leonard Hussey, a veteran of the Imperial Trans-Antarctic expedition, offered to accompany the body back to Britain; while he was in Montevideo en route to England, a message was received from Emily Shackleton asking that her husband be buried in South Georgia. [6] However, Shackleton took lifelong pride in his Irish roots, and frequently declared, "I am an Irishman". He wanted to be the first person to reach the South Pole, but then a Norwegian guy called Roald did it first in another pretty thrilling tale where a bunch of people died, so instead Shackleton was like “RIGHT LADS. The crew of 28 had a meteorologist, a biologist, a carpenter, a physicist, a cook, a photographer, a couple of officers, seamen, firemen, and surgeons. [107] The Yelcho took the crew first to Punta Arenas and after some days to Valparaiso in Chile where crowds warmly welcomed them back to civilisation. [140], Within a few years, he was thoroughly overtaken in public esteem by Shackleton, whose popularity surged while that of his erstwhile rival declined. [123] On 16 September 1921, Shackleton recorded a farewell address on a sound-on-film system created by Harry Grindell Matthews, who claimed it was the first "talking picture" ever made. Ernest Shackleton // by Maria Isabel Sanchez Vegara // illustrated by Olivia Holden "Difficulties are just things to overcome, after all." is an Assistant Professor of History in the School of History and Geography. [76] Public interest in the expedition was considerable; Shackleton received more than 5,000 applications to join it. Shackleton's original plans had envisaged using the old Discovery base in McMurdo Sound to launch his attempts on the South Pole and South Magnetic Pole. [54] Their return journey to McMurdo Sound was a race against starvation, on half-rations for much of the way. [147], In 1993 Trevor Potts re-enacted the Boat Journey from Elephant Island to South Georgia in honour of Sir Ernest Shackleton, totally unsupported, in a replica of the James Caird. Shackleton immediately sent a boat to pick up the three men from the other side of South Georgia while he set to work to organise the rescue of the Elephant Island men. After a period of rest and recuperation, rather than risk putting to sea again to reach the whaling stations on the northern coast, Shackleton decided to attempt a land crossing of the island. [33], Years after the death of Scott, Wilson and Shackleton, Albert Armitage, the expedition's second-in-command, claimed that there had been a falling-out on the southern journey, and that Scott had told the ship's doctor that "if he does not go back sick he will go back in disgrace. [13], The British National Antarctic Expedition, known as the Discovery expedition after the ship Discovery, was the brainchild of Sir Clements Markham, president of the Royal Geographical Society, and had been many years in preparation. Above, is the notice for employment on the Endurance posted by Shackleton. Many students of polar history consider this mammoth book as the definitive pictorial account Ernest Shackleton’s voyage with his crew on the 'Endurance'. The party was in high spirits, despite the difficult conditions; Shackleton's ability to communicate with each man kept the party happy and focused.[51]. Shackleton later wrote, "if we did not make it to South Georgia in that time we were sure to go under." Reality TV Crew: Tim Jarvis in the Footsteps of Shackleton", "Shackleton adventurers complete epic re-enactment voyage", "Adventurer Tim Jarvis survives to tell of his recreation of Sir Ernest Shackleton's Antarctic journey", "Chasing Shackleton: Chasing Shackleton re-aired August 12, 2014", "Statue of Polar explorer Ernest Shackleton unveiled in Athy", "The unveiling of Shackleton statue at Athy, Co. Kildare – Endurance Exhibition", "Ernest Shackleton Loves Me Off Broadway", "Review: A Zany Version of the Romance 'Ernest Shackleton Loves Me' in New Brunswick", https://nzheraldry.wordpress.com/2015/07/13/sir-ernest-shackleton/, "Explorers' century-old whisky found in Antarctic", "Forgotten hero Frank Wild of Antarctic exploration finally laid to rest, beside his 'boss' Sir Ernest Shackleton", "Shackleton's biscuit fetches tasty price", "Historical figures: Ernest Shackleton (1874–1922)", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ernest_Shackleton&oldid=994233706, British Army personnel of the Russian Civil War, Collections of the Scott Polar Research Institute, Fellows of the Royal Geographical Society, Fellows of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society, Liberal Unionist Party parliamentary candidates, Officers of the Order of the British Empire, Recipients of the Cullum Geographical Medal, Pages containing London Gazette template with parameter supp set to y, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with Biodiversity Heritage Library links, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with KULTURNAV identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Semantic Scholar author identifiers, Wikipedia articles with TePapa identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Commander of the Royal Victorian Order (CVO, 1909; MVO 4th Class: 1907), Officer of the Order of the British Empire, Military Division (OBE, 1918), Polar Medal (1904; with clasp for Nimrod Expedition: 1909), Gold Medal of the Royal Geographical Society of Antwerp (1909), This page was last edited on 14 December 2020, at 18:49. Born 15 February 1874, in Kilkea, County Kildare, Ireland, Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton was a popular British Antarctic explorer. [97], Elephant Island was an inhospitable place, far from any shipping routes; rescue by means of chance discovery was very unlikely. The printed word saw much more attention given to Scott—a forty-page booklet on Shackleton, published in 1943 by OUP as part of a "Great Exploits" series, is described by cultural historian Stephanie Barczewski as "a lone example of a popular literary treatment of Shackleton in a sea of similar treatments of Scott". [91] After failed attempts to march across the ice to this island, Shackleton decided to set up another more permanent camp (Patience Camp) on another floe, and trust to the drift of the ice to take them towards a safe landing. Ernest Henry Shackleton (1874-1922) was a British explorer who commanded three expeditions to the Antarctic (1907-09, 1914-17, 1921-22), during which the South Magnetic Pole was located in 1909. Scott wrote: "He ought not to risk further hardship in his present state of health. Literature, too, consisted in the dissection, the parsing, the analysing of certain passages from our great poets and prose-writers ... teachers should be very careful not to spoil [their pupils'] taste for poetry for all time by making it a task and an imposition. [a][28] The journey was marred by the poor performance of the dogs, whose food had become tainted, and who rapidly fell sick. On 9 January 1909, Shackleton and three companions—Wild, Eric Marshall and Jameson Adams—reached a new Farthest South latitude of 88° 23' S, a point only 112 miles (180 km) from the Pole. Having gone to sea as a teenager, Shackleton joined Captain Scott’s Discovery expedition 1901 – 1904 and went on to lead three of his own expeditions to the Antarctic. [48] In accordance with Shackleton's promise to Scott, the ship headed for the eastern sector of the Great Ice Barrier, arriving there on 21 January 1908. In the period immediately after his return, Shackleton engaged in a strenuous schedule of public appearances, lectures and social engagements. Ward-room caterer. [124] The expedition left England on 24 September 1921. While Shackleton led the expedition, Captain F. Worsley commanded the Endurance and Lieutenant J. Stenhouse the Aurora. [136], During the ensuing decades Shackleton's status as a polar hero was generally outshone by that of Captain Scott, whose polar party had by 1925 been commemorated on more than 30 monuments in Britain alone, including stained glass windows, statues, busts and memorial tablets. Rowett agreed to finance the entire expedition, which became known as the Shackleton–Rowett Expedition. At age 13, Shackleton enrolled at Dulwich College. [162], "Shackleton" redirects here. As a young boy, his family moved to England where he started his first formal schooling. Ernest Shackleton, Trans Antarctic Expedition 1914 - 1917: 1: Preparation 2: Into the pack ice 3: Voyage of the James Caird 4: South Georgia again Shackleton Tweets Timeline and map Shackleton pictures 1 Shackleton pictures 2 Crew of the Endurance E-book - South Other expeditions: The third option was chosen. I retraced the 1914 mission of Sir Ernest Shackleton, who went down to the Antarctic with the goal to cross it from one side to the other. Let’s not forget that Shackleton gave the order to collect the last of the supplies from the sunken Endurance after the route was blocked and the food reclaim party were forced to turn back. He was one of the principal figures of the period known as the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration. Earnest Shackleton departed on a sailing adventure with his team on December 5, 1914. [13] On 17 February 1901, his appointment as third officer to the expedition's ship Discovery was confirmed; on 4 June he was commissioned into the Royal Navy, with the rank of sub-lieutenant in the Royal Naval Reserve. In 1905, Shackleton became a shareholder in a speculative company that aimed to make a fortune transporting Russian troops home from the Far East. [2] He rapidly became a role model for leadership as one who, in extreme circumstances, kept his team together in a survival story described by cultural historian Stephanie Barczewski as "incredible".[3]. [10] The options available were a Royal Navy cadetship at Britannia, which Shackleton could not afford; the mercantile marine cadet ships Worcester and Conway; or an apprenticeship "before the mast" on a sailing vessel. F Four years later, the family moved again, from Ireland to Sydenham in suburban London. and I said 'Yes darling, as far as I am concerned'". [46], On 1 January 1908, the Nimrod set off on the British Antarctic Expedition from Lyttelton Harbour, New Zealand. 3. At one point, Shackleton gave his one biscuit allotted for the day to the ailing Frank Wild, who wrote in his diary: "All the money that was ever minted would not have bought that biscuit and the remembrance of that sacrifice will never leave me". Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton is best known as a polar explorer who was associated with four expeditions exploring Antarctica, particularly the Trans-Antarctic ( Endurance) Expedition (1914–16) that he led, which, although unsuccessful, became famous as a tale of remarkable perseverance and survival. When Shackleton returned to England in May 1917, Europe was in the midst of the First World War. Morale matters: Motivate the group and the individual. Ernest Shackleton was born on Feb. 15, 1874 as the second of ten children in County Kildare, Ireland. Shackleton's earliest days were spent on his family's farm in Ireland, where he was born on February 15, 1874. [56] Shackleton returned to the United Kingdom as a hero, and soon afterwards published his expedition account, Heart of the Antarctic. In a Christie's auction in London in 2011, a biscuit that Shackleton gave "a starving fellow traveller" on the 1907–1909 Nimrod expedition sold for £1250. He also assisted in the equipping of the Argentine Uruguay, which was being fitted out for the relief of the stranded Swedish Antarctic Expedition under Otto Nordenskjold. [145] In 2001, the Athy Heritage Centre-Museum, Athy, County Kildare, Ireland, established the Ernest Shackleton Autumn School, which is held annually, to honour the memory of Ernest Shackleton. Hurley himself was a hero and was very important in a number of other incidents beyond his … Thus physicist Reginald James was asked if he could sing;[79] others were accepted on sight because Shackleton liked the look of them, or after the briefest of interrogations. A new podcast by Dr. Juliana Adelman from the School of History and Geography and Kevin Kenny from the Shackleton Museum in Athy asks What would Shackleton do? in Morrell and Capparell 146). He left on the eve of … With Amundsen reaching the pole in December of 1911 and Scott in 1912, Shackleton asked himself what was the last great geographic prize. He became a farmer instead, settling in Kilkea. Dying heavily in debt, Shackleton's small estate consisted of personal effects to the value of £556 2s. In his search for rapid pathways to wealth and security, he launched business ventures which failed to prosper, and he died heavily in debt. 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